"Three grossly different types of stigma may be mentioned. First there are abominations of the body - the various physical deformities.
Next there are blemishes of individual character perceived as weak will, domineering or unnatural passions, treacherous and rigid beliefs, and dishonesty, these being inferred from a known record of, for example, mental disorder, imprisonment, addiction, alcoholism, homosexuality, unemployment, suicidal attempts, and radical political behaviour.
Finally, there are the tribal stigma of race, nation, and religion, these being stigma that can be transmitted through lineages and equally contaminate all members of a family...
By definition, of course, we believe the person with a stigma is not quite human. On this assumption we exercise varieties of discrimination, through which we effectively, if often unthinkingly, reduce his life chances"
- Erving Goffman, Stigma, Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity (1963)
TITLE - "Smeer"
WHERE - Graffiti on graffiti, Berlin, Germany (2015)